Победа на море / Victory At Sea WW2 (США, NBC, Генри Саломон, все 26 серий) 1952-1953 годы
Победа на море — документальный сериал о войне на море во время Второй мировой войны, который был первоначально выпущен в эфир NBC, в США в 1952-1953 гг. И переделан в фильм в 1954 году. Музыкальное сопровождение от Ричарда Роджерса и Роберта Расселла Беннетт, в дальнейшем продавались как музыкальные альбомы. Оригинальные телепередачи составили 26 получасовых частей, которые показывались по воскресениям в 3 часа дня (EST), начиная с 26 октября 1952 года, по 3 мая 1953 года. Цикл «Победа на море» в 1954 году получил награду в номинации «лучшая программа о государственных делах», и сыграл важную роль в установлении документальных фильмов — как жанре телевидения.
Проект был задуман Генри Саломоном, который служил в ВМС США во время Второй мировой войны, ассистентом историком был Сэмюэл Элиот Морисон. Саломон узнал о большом количестве видеозаписей и хроники ВМС, которые были собраны за время войны. Саломон покинул военно-морской флот в 1948 году, когда к нему приходит идея документального фильма.
Канал NBC одобрил проект в 1951 году, с Саломоном в качестве продюсера и бюджетом в размере 500000 долларов (большой для того времени). Его команда, состоящая в основном из ветеранов кинохроники, делала поиски материалов в морских архивах по всему миру в сотрудничестве с ВМС США, которые придавали фильмы пропагандистское значение. Команда Саломона создает 60000000 футовый (18300 км) фильм, который был отредактирован/укорочен до 61 000 фута для трансляции.
— Всего 26 серий по 25-30 минут каждая, события начиная с 1939 года. Без перевода.
— Сериал известен так же своим великолепным музыкальным сопровождением.
— Много хроники производственных процессо, погрузки техники, десанта и технических операций.
— Сериал получил множество наград, включая Эмми и премию Пибоди.
— Для большинства современных зрителей, сценарий и повествование
сохраняет свою привлекательность, но знатоки критикуют монтаж —
анахронизмом последовательности, например, морские и воздушные суда из
1943-45 года используются в сериях за 1941-42 годы.
1. October 26, 1952 Начало войны: Битва в Атлантике / DESIGN FOR WAR: Battle of the Atlantic, 1939–1941
World War II begins and the Germans succeed in invading Poland and France. But German forces are restrained by the British thanks to the vital convoys, Canadian and American naval forces’ initial involvement and the Lend-Lease program. Still, the German submarine war increases its crescendo thanks to new French bases.
2. November 2, 1952 Тихий Океан закипает: Перл-Харбор / THE PACIFIC BOILS OVER: Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
Using Japanese footage, viewers see the planning, execution and, ultimately, the celebration of the country’s attack on Pearl Harbor. There also is an explanation provided for the attack and some peaceful moments depicted among the U.S. sailors before the fateful events unfold. Though damaged, the U.S. Navy survives to fight again.
3. November 9, 1952 Сопротивление нарастает: Борьба с подводными лодками / SEALING THE BREACH: Anti-submarine warfare, 1941–1943
With war now declared by the U.S., naval forces throughout the states have joined to bring convoys of supplies across the Atlantic Ocean to the Allies in England. German U-Boats come through and manage to destroy some of ships along the way. Still, the Americans are resilient.
4. November 23, 1952 Мидуэй — Восток: Японские победы и битва за Мидуэй / MIDWAY IS EAST: Japanese victories and the Battle of Midway
The Japanese are ascendant as they successfully invade the East Indies, Singapore and the Philippines. But the Americans are victorious, first on the Coral Sea and ultimately on Midway as they manage to bomb four of Japan’s aircraft carriers—the same ones that were used for the attack on Pearl Harbor—making the imperial fleet retreat and giving the U.S. an incredible early victory in the Pacific.
5. November 30, 1952 Средиземноморская мозаика: Гибраалтар, Флоты союзников и Врагов, Мальта / MEDITERRANEAN MOSAIC: Gibraltar, Allied and enemy fleets, Malta
World War II comes to the Mediterranean Sea as Italian, French and British naval forces struggle. British forces have the enviable position of guarding the sea as they escort convoys from Gibraltar to Malta. Still, they have their relaxing moments, especially the daily mealtimes: Morning cocoa, breakfast, dinner, tea, and supper. Meanwhile, the German Luftwaffe never fails to besiege the island of Malta, but the Maltese remain determined to keep fighting. Their heroism is rewarded when King George VI pays a later visit to the island, reviving their spirits.
6. December 14, 1952 Гуадалканал: Гуадалканал / GUADALCANAL: Guadalcanal
After training in Australia and New Zealand, the U.S. Marines land on Guadalcanal. The U.S. Navy suffers defeats by the Japanese Navy around the island—in an area called Ironbottom Sound. Essential information is conveyed about how some deaths are caused not just by battle but also by malaria that comes from the long stays in the Guadalcanal rain forest. The number of people dying on both sides is especially emphasized here, a remarkable example of endurance. Meanwhile, to the tune of Richard Rodgers’ most famous march from the series, America’s men and materiel are mobilized against the ultimate struggle that is World War II.
7. December 21, 1952 Кольца вокруг Рабаул: Борьба за Соломоновы острова / RINGS AROUND RABAUL: Struggle for the Solomon Islands
The Japanese Navy is ascendant in its conquests, of which its main base is on Rabaul in the New Britain Islands. This Victory at Sea episode refers to the US strategy of surrounding and strangling the Japanese base in the autumn of 1943 through invasions of its surrounding islands (Bougainville, Rendova). Praise is given to the «Seabees», who made the airfields operational in a brief time, and to observation planes and radar, which helped the U.S. Navy stop Japanese reinforcements and counterattacks.
8. December 28, 1952 Средиземное море: Война в средиземноморье 1940-1942 / MARE NOSTRUM: Mediterranean Command, 1940–1942
Mussolini calls the Mediterranean «mare nostrum», or «our sea», and seeks to exploit it. British and Greek military forces, however, defeat the Italians, forcing the Germans to send the Afrika Korps. But it is the sea battles to control the Mediterranean that is the crux. At issue is who controls the Suez Canal in Egypt. Eventually, the Allies triumph, and proceeded to destroy the Germans in the desert.
9. January 4, 1953 Море и песок: Вторжение в Северную Африку, 1942-1943 / SEA AND SAND: Invasion of North Africa, 1942–1943
The USSR government demands a «second front» as their country struggles against the Germans. The wish is granted as Roosevelt and Churchill in Washington agree on the first invasion of North Africa against General Rommel’s forces via Operation Torch, while the Allies also neutralize many of the Axis’ Mediterranean supply bases. Eventually, the Germans counterattack, but to no avail.
10. January 11, 1953 ПОД ЮЖНЫМ КРЕСТОМ: Война в Южной Атлантике / BENEATH THE SOUTHERN CROSS: War in the south Atlantic
The South Atlantic becomes a front in the overall Battle of the Atlantic, from the pursuit of the ship Graf Spee to the battle between HMS Devonshire and the German raider «Atlantis». The Allies, meanwhile, nurture their relations with South America and gain a vital base in Ascension Island. Despite strong sympathy for the Nazis, the South American nations rally to the Allies’ cause, securing vital bases, forces and resources.
11. January 18, 1953 На северный магнитный полюс: Война от Мурманска до Аляски / THE MAGNETIC NORTH: War from Murmansk to Alaska
This episode of Victory at Sea explores the battles between the Allies and Germans near the Arctic Circle, and the convoys battling past German-occupied Norway to Russia. Meanwhile, the Japanese invade Alaska unsuccessfully, and the U.S. Navy again is ordered to guard this vital area amidst the harsh climate and vast vistas.
12. January 25, 1953 Завоевания в Микронезии: острова Гилберта и Маршалловы / THE CONQUEST OF MICRONESIA: Carrier warfare and the Gilberts and Marshalls
The ubiquitous aircraft carriers of the U.S. Navy attack in the Central Pacific Ocean at the Gilbert and Marshall islands, destroying Japanese installations. But for all of these, there is a price to pay for victory.
13. February 1, 1953 Меланезийский кошмар: Новая кампания в Гвинеи / MELANESIAN NIGHTMARE: New Guinea campaign
The Allies are victorious in New Guinea as they repel the Japanese. They thus bring the fight through a series of «island-hopping» offensives using a new ship—the slow but vital LST. The price paid is great on both sides, but as Japanese casualties increase in their never-ending losing battle against the Allied onslaught, their homeland only hears news of their victory being broadcast by radio. We see also just how Japan’s people are suffering in defeat through a very touching scene of a massive funeral at the conclusion of this segment, providing a balance of how universal grief truly is.
14. February 8, 1953 РИМСКИЙ РЕНЕССАНС: Сицилия и итальянская кампания / ROMAN RENAISSANCE: Sicily and the Italian campaign
While Hitler’s Germany begins its decline, Mussolini’s Italy falls. Eventually, as Naples and Rome are bombed, the Italians surrender. But there is still a slow ruinous campaign (Salerno, Cassino, Anzio) until final victory is achieved by the liberation of Roma, where Romans celebrate freedom waving American flags, and the Pope addressing the audience…
15. February 15, 1953 День-Д: Нормандия / D-DAY: Normandy
The Allied invasion of Normandy is detailed—from preparation to execution—courtesy of vintage footage from both sides. A great victory for the Allies.
16. February 22, 1953 Убийцы и убитые: Победа в Атлантическом океане, 1943-1945 / KILLERS AND THE KILLED: Victory in the Atlantic, 1943–1945
The U-Boats are ascendant, and their triumphs proclaimed in Germany. But the Allies fight back with new bases in countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, new antisubmarine techniques and the new escort, or «jeep», carrier. Thus, the neutralization and destruction of the German U-Boat forces is guaranteed.
17. March 1, 1953 Турецкий выстрел: Завоевание Марианских островов / THE TURKEY SHOOT: Conquest of the Marianas
Guam, a U.S. territory, is invaded by Japanese a few days after Pearl Harbor and remains occupied for two and a half years before the Americans arrive to reclaim Saipan and Guam, and destroy as well the Japanese fleet in a classic «turkey shoot». The Guamanians are thankful as expressed on their smiling faces, making it one of the most inspiring segments of Victory at Sea. Meanwhile, the Americans are preparing the bases in the islands as well as in other areas of the Marianas for the ultimate bomber offensive against Japan.
18. March 8, 1953 Два, если морские: Пепелиа и Ангаур / TWO IF BY SEA: Peleliu and Angaur
Before the Philippines Islands, the United States first attacks Peleliu and Anguar. Through communiques, viewers see the battle.
19. March 15, 1953 БИТВА ЗА залив Лейте: Морской бой в заливе Лейте / BATTLE FOR LEYTE GULF: Sea battle for Leyte Gulf
The Japanese fleet is disintegrating, and the Imperial Navy conducts its last major operation in the Philippines. It ends in debacle: The risen battleships of Pearl Harbor avenge the attack in Surigao Strait, the Center Force is defeated in Sibuyan Sea, the jeep carriers and destroyers fend off a stronger Japanese force near Samar and the remaining Japanese aircraft carriers are sunk. This Victory at Sea segment marked the near inevitability that the Japanese would accept defeat and surrender to the Allies.
20. March 22, 1953 ВОЗВРАЩЕНИЕ союзников: Освобождение Филиппин / RETURN OF THE ALLIES: Liberation of the Philippines
Just after the U.S. entered World War II, the Japanese conquered the Commonwealth of the Philippines, an American protectorate, occupying its people. But they still hope, and in January 1945, these were answered as much of the Philippines Islands were liberated and its people cheered the Americans. Their liberation became bloody as they fought their way in Manila, but still they cheered. A touching tribute to the will of the Philippine people to survive as they waited for liberation—and their eventual independence a year later.
21. March 29, 1953 Полное исчезновение: американские субмарины, 1941-1945 / FULL FATHOM FIVE: U.S. submarines, 1941–1945
In this episode of Victory at Sea, viewers see how the U.S. Navy’s submarines contributed to the Japanese empire’s defeat, sinking thousands of tons of commercial ships. Viewers see footage of ship upon ship destroyed. But a price is paid for those whom the U.S. Navy classifies as «did not return».
22. April 5, 1953 Судьба Европы: Черное море, юг Франции, пленные / THE FATE OF EUROPE: Black Sea, south of France, surrender
Sevastopol was liberated and the Allies finally defeat Germany. Viewers also witness the meeting of Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin for final plans for Germany’s surrender and the forming of the United Nations. At the end, Hitler commits suicide, and Nazi flags are torn apart and German military uniforms and hats lie on the ground, discarded. However, compelling footage of German cities in ruins make this one of the most somber episodes of Victory at Sea.
23. April 12, 1953 Щит Сурибачи: Иво Джима / TARGET SURIBACHI: Iwo Jima
The United States fought two battles here—the U.S. Marines at Iwo Jima against the Japanese, and the U.S. Navy against the typhoon. During the now-legendary events depicted in this episode, the series reaches the final throes of battle in the Pacific war against the Japanese. And as the scene of the recent Mount Suribachi memorial appears, viewers are once again reminded of the price that comes before true victory can be achieved.
24. April 19, 1953 Дорога до Мандалая: Китай, Бирма, Индия и Индийский океан / THE ROAD TO MANDALAY: China, Burma, India, and Indian Ocean
The Japanese invade China in 1936, but the Japanese are not satisfied and they invade Indochina and Thailand, enabling the invasion of Burma. The U.S. and British navies nurture their relations with the Indian Navy as supplies are built for the return. Eventually, it was decided to build a road to link with the Burma Road, and with human and elephant power, they succeeded. Eventually, they «came back to Mandalay», and the first supplies traveled the road to hordes of cheering Chinese.
25. April 26, 1953 Самоубийство ради славы: Окинава / SUICIDE FOR GLORY: Okinawa
In a last effort at glory, having lost most of their best men in military actions, Japan employs suicide pilots—the Kamikaze—men who willingly crash their planes into ships in order to destroy the American spirit. But the U.S. Navy and Marines are ready for them with their guns, and they fought heroically against the onslaught. And on Okinawa, Americans fight a major battle with the Japanese Army.
26. May 3, 1953 Начало мира: Капитуляция Японии и после войны / DESIGN FOR PEACE: Surrender of Japan & aftermath of war
The atomic bomb is detonated, and its effects demonstrated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. With that, the Japanese surrender, and their diplomats and military officials sign the official surrender documents aboard the USS Missouri. The U.S. armed forces come home to signs saying, «Welcome Home» before they are greeted by mothers, wives, children and fellow neighbors. But before the series is ended, there is one last parade to march in their honor.